William Bernstein notes that Smith was not the first to support the benefits of free trade. He says, “The most notable of the early dealers was Henry Martyn, whose reflection on east Indian trade was preceded by seventy-five years by Adam Smith`s wealth of nations.” William J. Bernstein, A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World (New York: Grove Press, 2008), 258. A number of EU bilateral trade agreements contained substantial liberalisation of trade in goods, as well as provisions on non-tariff barriers and trade in services. For example, the reason for these significant deviations from the original model is that the modern world of free trade is so different from the initial historical environment of free trade models. Today, no one clearly determines the best economic outcome on the basis of natural national advantages. The current world economy does not highlight a single better result achieved through international competition in which each country serves the best interests of the world by producing precisely the goods it is obviously the most efficient to produce. On the contrary, there are many possible outcomes that depend on what countries actually do, on the skills, natural or man-made, that actually develop them.  Kei-Mu Yi of the World Bank finds that standard economic models were very well responsible for the growth of world trade until the mid-1970s, but cannot explain the growth of trade since then.  However, a model that takes into account supply chains explains the growth of trade and estimates that such vertical specialization now accounts for about 30% of world trade. It is clear that the United States is benefiting from the reduction of its trade barriers by its trading partners, because its exports will increase, which will lead to an increase in production and employment.
Most economists also believe that the United States benefits from the removal of its own trade barriers, given that consumers benefit from reduced costs and international competition forces producers to improve efficiency. However, the liberalization of imports has an impact on domestic labour and production, which must be taken into account. Outsourcing is the assignment to an independent organization of a business process that an organization may have previously performed in-house or that needs a new need, to an independent organization from which the process is bought as a service. Although the practice of buying a business function – instead of providing it in-house – is a common feature of any modern economy, the term outsourcing became popular in America at the turn of the twenty-first century. A subcontracting agreement may also include the transfer of the employees and assets involved to the subcontracting counterparty. The definition of outsourcing encompasses both foreign and domestic contracts, which may include outsourcing, described as “a company that removes a function from its activities and relocates it to another country.” Talks on the Doha Round have been circulating for more than a decade and the reasons for its failure are complex. Many of these issues depended on the two most powerful economies — the US and the EU. Both opposed a cut in agricultural subsidies that would have lowered their food export prices compared to many emerging economies. .