In recent years, a number of models (see page 32) have been developed with common objectives. First, exchange the commitments of the convention through a new set of commitments that the people will accept, and governments will be able and willing to implement them in principle and thus free up resources. Second, ways to improve the quality of protection, especially in asylum countries and regions. Third, to remove the refugee regime from migration and allow states to protect their refugee protection policies from migratory pressure and to allay public fears about migration and human trafficking, which are linked by asylum. These models are based on conceptions of port security, temporary protection, international, regional and bilateral cooperation, in accordance with established principles and burden-sharing. They are also based on the idea that people`s needs and the facts of their cases are better established near their place of residence. Asylum seekers are attracted in some countries by a number of obvious factors in the ethnic and ethnic community, employment opportunities and wage levels, the generosity of social protection systems, tolerance within existing societies and accessible determination systems. In Europe last year, 70% of asylum seekers sought refuge in only four countries: Germany, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Acceptance rates are clearer for a country`s political priorities or attitude to migration or the weight of the figures it has faced, or its diplomatic relations with “issuer” countries than the authenticity of refugee applications.
While a number of African countries (including Angola, Mozambique, Liberia, Zambia) are signatories, it has always been clear that the Convention has limited usefulness in dealing with the refugee situation in Africa. In 1969, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) adopted a convention on refugee problems in Africa, which includes a broader approach to refugees. These include people who have been driven out of their country by external aggression or occupation or by “events that seriously disturb public order.” (17) In 1984, Latin American countries adopted the “Cartagena Declaration,” which contains a similar definition of refugees. For countries such as China or Cambodia that are signatories, it is a matter of allowing asylum seekers to remain in their countries, while UNHCR identifies resettlement needs. The convention-based system, as it currently operates, gives priority to those present on the basis of their mobility (and their ability to pay), not those who need it most. Women and children predominate in refugee camps, suffer from most human rights violations and are the most vulnerable in refugee situations. Men, mostly young, dominated among asylum seekers (75-80 per cent of today`s boats in Australia are men). This is partly due to the fact that husbands leave their families to follow in a safe future. It is also the result of the dating of the Convention, formulated in terms that still correspond to the male experience (as individual political activists) in many refugee countries.