In addition to these two policies, free trade agreements have been signed with other states and trading blocs such as Chile and South Africa. A future relationship is likely to be based on a combination of an Association Agreement (AA) and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA). This overview contains data on the time it will take to bring such agreements with the EU into force. Association agreements are comprehensive framework agreements between the EU (or its predecessors) and its Member States, as well as an external state that regulates their bilateral relations. The provision of an Association Agreement was incorporated into the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community to enable the Community to cooperate with the United Kingdom, which had withdrawn from the Treaty negotiations at the Messina Conference in 1955. According to the European External Action Service, to be classified as AA, an agreement must meet several criteria:[1] 2. Intention to establish close economic and political cooperation (more than just cooperation); 3. the creation of para-parliamentary bodies for the management of cooperation, which shall be responsible for decisions binding on the Contracting Parties; 4. Provide most-favoured-nation treatment; 5. ensure a privileged relationship between the EC and its partner; 6. Since 1995, the clause on respect for human rights and democratic principles has been systematically included and is an essential element of the Agreement.

An Association Agreement with the European Union (Association Agreement or Association Agreement for short) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a third country that creates a framework for cooperation between them. Areas often covered by such agreements include the development of political, trade, social, cultural and security relations. The legal basis for the conclusion of Association Agreements is Article 217 TFEU (former Articles 310 and 238 of the EC Treaty). Trade agreements between the EU and other countries or free trade areas have different effects on the respective economies. The agricultural industry is most affected when regional farms have to compete with large producers who access markets when tariffs fall. For large agreements such as AA with Mercosur, there is considerable resistance in European countries to cheaper imports of meat and other products. [136] However, for the manufacturing of motor vehicles and industrial products for export, which typically involves large global companies, volume increases relevant to the more industrialized commercial members are evident. [137] The first states to sign such an agreement were Greece (1961)[2] and Turkey (1963). [3] In recent history, such agreements have been signed under two EU policies: the Stabilisation and Association Process (SAP) and the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The government and the EU have already proposed that an agreement on the future relationship could take the form of an AA. This could be combined with a DCFTA.

The environmental impact on countries that export agricultural products from tropical forest areas or other ecologically relevant regions, for example brazil, is increasingly documented by environmental groups opposed to EU trade agreements. [138] In addition, other industries with a significant environmental impact, such as mining, are expanding into regions with low regulatory requirements, such as South America and Asia. Industry groups argued that better economic performance in these sectors would only strengthen standards in participating countries and that EU trade agreements should go hand in hand with efforts to harmonise environmental legislation. [139] In all Brexit scenarios, the UK government will want to negotiate an agreement on the future relationship with the EU. .